Cryptography is a method used to prevent unauthorized access to data from an outsider or third party beyond intended recipients. The term cryptography traces its origins to two Greek terms, Kryptos, which means "hidden," and graphein, which means "to write."


In the blockchain, cryptographic algorithms are mathematical functions performed to encrypt or hide data stored on the network. Cryptographic algorithms used by blockchain networks fall into two main categories - asymmetric-key algorithms and hash functions.


Cryptography is an encryption method used to secure data within the distributed ledger technology of the blockchain, making it impossible for unauthorized access or misuse. Asymmetric-key cryptography utilizes an encryption key and a decryption key, also called a public key and private key, respectively, to secure the data.


On the other hand, hash functions perform cryptography within a blockchain without using keys. This type of cryptography uses a cipher to generate a hash value of a specified length which is nearly impossible to recover plaintext from.